Hand lay-up is the oldest and oldest method of "open mold" in the composite material manufacturing process. The open-mold method means that the technique is performed with the mold exposed (unlike pultrusion, vacuum infusion, etc.). This method is done by applying resin to the reinforcing material using a brush/roller. Usually this method is used for the manufacture of large components, such as hulls, swimming pools, etc.
Although the hand lay-up method has weaknesses such as inconsistent thickness, uneven distribution of resin, more waste of resin, mechanical strength that is not as good as the closed mold process, etc. But this method is still widely used because of its convenience and very low cost.